[Download E-pub] ♫ Crypto: How the Code Rebels Beat the Government Saving Privacy in the Digital Age ⚖ Pb-reisen-gewusst-wie.de

This is one hell of a non fiction book I tore through it in every free moment I had in four days, and I m probably going to re read it, too It paints an exciting history 1960 2000 of the discovery of private sector encryption algorithms, and colorful skirmishes between professors, tech entrepreneurs and the NSA. It was written in 2014 so it s outdated just by the nature of the beast, but this is definitely the best introduction to crypto, bitcoin, and blockchain technology that I ve read so far. [Download E-pub] ⚑ Crypto: How the Code Rebels Beat the Government Saving Privacy in the Digital Age ⚉ If The National Security Agency NSA Had Wanted To Make Sure That Strong Encryption Would Reach The Masses, It Couldn T Have Done Much Better Than To Tell The Cranky Geniuses Of The World Not To Do It Author Steven Levy, Deservedly Famous For His Enlightening Hackers, Tells The Story Of The Cypherpunks, Their Foes, And Their Allies In Crypto How The Code Rebels Beat The Government From The Determined Research Of Whitfield Diffie And Marty Hellman, In The Face Of The NSA S Decades Old Security Lock, To The Commercial World S Turn Of The Century Embrace Of Encrypted E Commerce, Levy Finds Drama And Intellectual Challenge Everywhere He Looks Although He Writes, Behind Every Great Cryptographer, It Seems, There Is A Driving Pathology, His Respect For The Mathematicians And Programmers Who Spearheaded Public Key Encryption As The Solution To Information Age Privacy Invasion Shines Throughout Even The Governmental Bad Guys Are Presented As Hapless Control Fetishists Who Lack The Prescience To See The Inevitability Of Strong Encryption As Than A Conspiracy Of Evil Each Cryptological Advance That Was Made Outside The Confines Of The NSA S Fort Meade Complex Was Met With Increasing Legislative And Judicial Resistance Levy S Storytelling Acumen Tugs The Reader Along Through Mathematical And Legal Hassles That Would Stop Most Narratives In Their Tracks His Words Make Even The Depressingly Silly Clipper Chip Fiasco Vibrant Hardcore Privacy Nerds Will Value Crypto As A Review Of Years Of Wrangling Those Readers With Less Familiarity With The Subject Will Find It A Terrific And Well Documented Launching Pad For Further Research From Notables Like Phil Zimmerman To Obscure But Important Figures Like James Ellis, Crypto Dishes The Dirt On Folks Who Know How To Keep A SecretRob Lightner This was a pretty interesting read about cryptography and its history It s an in depth look at the creators of the widely used schemes on the internet I ve had a brief overview of public key cryptography in a couple of my CS classes, so I had a good background to understand how the encryption scheme actually works and what s involved That being said, this book goes even further back and looks at how encryption really became an issue.By far, the most fascinating part of this book for me was how much the U.S Government had its hands in the details of cryptography and encryption They wanted to be able to put back doors in everything, make encryption weak so it s actually very useless since there s always someone with power and money to poor into breaking encryption schemes I can t believe how much they restricted things early on.Additionally, I really enjoyed reading about public private key cryptography and how it was such a radical idea I definitely think it makes sense, but it s so common and used all over the place now, it s crazy to think that just 30 years ago, people were totally baffled by the idea These mathmeticians are geniuses.This book is quite technical While things are explained pretty well, you will likely be confused by a few of the topics Oh yeah, only goes through to about 2000disappointing Definitely an interesting reading especially after all of the Snowden leaks As I m quite interested in the history of crypto especially modern public key cryptography I knew about most of the protagonists mentioned in the book But there are a lot of anecdotes and interrelationship I didn t know anything about So learning about all of this, was really a joy Steven Levy has definitely the skill to breath life into topics most would describe as theoretical and boring I m pretty sure that the average reader would not really get an understanding of the discoveries made throughout the book, but at least everybody should get the concept and its implications.What makes this particularly interesting is the role the NSA was playing throughout all of the history of modern cryptography In hindsight after all of the Snowden leaks it is so obvious that this agency would not simply give up by allowing crypto to be exported without any restrictions, but that they would actually try to infiltrate everything they can So, I wouldn t necessarily agree with the conclusion that a bunch of rebels beat the government, but that the government, after having realized that its old strategy wouldn t work any longer, has switched its way of fighting.Of course, one could argue that, when crypto is done right, even the government isn t able to violate our privacy, but realistically we have to understand that often than not crypto is being implemented and or used wrong. At our office in Reston, VA, I host an office Cybersecurity Canon book club Every couple of months, we pick a book either from the Hall of Fame list or from the candidate list, read it as a group, bring everybody in for a lunch learn, and talk about it This last time, we discussed Crypto by Steven Levy The Cybersecurity Canon Committee inducted Crypto into the Canon Hall of Fame back in 2017 because Levy describes a turning point in world history, between 1975 and 1996, when math and computer science mavericks made it possible for common people, not governments, to use cryptological tools to encrypt data and prevent unwanted eyes from learning their secrets People like Whitt Diffie Martie Helman, Rivest Shamir Adleman of RSA Fame , Phil Zimmermann of PGP Fame , and many others, made it possible for average internet web surfers to ensure that no eavesdroppers were listening to their conversations or stealing their data Before this time, cryptology tools had been the purview of governments, specifically the NSA after WWII, and the spy agency leaders were not too happy about this development Their theory was that if cryptology got into the hands of the average citizen, the NSA s job of cracking codes to steal secrets from their enemies and the FBI s job of collecting evidence on criminals, would get exponentially harder Both agencies put up quite a resistance in order to not allow the spread of this technology When they lost that fight, the government attempted to weaken the crypto algorithms so much that the encrypted messages would be easy to break They even proposed, and got President Clinton to approve, a plan to install a hardware chip, called the Clipper Chip, on every manufactured computer This chip would encrypt data for all citizens but also store keys in escrow that the FBI could use to decrypt information to support investigations Even though approved by the President, the Clipper Chip never caught on and the initiative died due in no small part with the widespread availability of free encryption software packages, like PGP, that the U.S government did not control Levy s book walks the reader through this important debate in internet history between the two giant and competing ideas of privacy vs security In this round, privacy won but the issue is not dead When the Snowden disclosures became public in 2013 and the world learned that the NSA may not have been as transparent about spying on U.S citizens as they should have, the debate began again The government s argument was that they needed this kind of surveillance power to stop terrorism and other bad guys The FBI got into a heated legal debate with Apple about decrypting the Sacramento shooter s iPhone Apple said building a back door into their devices is akin to the key escrow debate of the last 1990s Law enforcement said that end to end encryption without any recourse was making devices warrant proof.The reason that Crypto is in the Cybersecurity Canon Hall of Fame, is it walks the reader through this very important debate between privacy and security Network defenders are perhaps the only segment on the planet who understand the nuances of these arguments It is clear that average citizens do not If we do not attempt to learn this material and explain it to our non geek friends, I believe the entire community will lose any semblance of privacy in the not too distant future. This book was a page turner Extremely well written description of battle between individual privacy and the NSA that went on from 1980 to 2000 The era started with Martin Gardner s1977 article in Scientific American on RSA 129, a public key cryptography system and how large primes, modular arithmetic, and one way functions can be used to create mostly unbreakable codes Levy mixes mathematics, history and politics to show that Big Brother doesn t always know best From Fermat s Little theorem and Euclidean algorithms rose hash functions, message digests, chosen plain text attacks, deconstructing random number generators, Mailsafe hybrid crypto system , zero knowledge proofs, digital money, blind signatures, key escrows, group cracking software, and anonymous remailers the digital age has arrived and we are better off for it. A fifteen year old book on technology doesn t seem like it could be relevant enough to warrant attention, but it was worth reading for two reasons First, it s a history book, so the events and concepts haven t changed But importantly the world is essentially in the same state it was in when the book was published in 2002 cryptography is still legal, the export battle is still won We still use hybrid encryption with RSA and certificate authorities, as we did then The book feels current, and there s a lot of great detail on the political battles I hadn t known about Just about the only major thing it lacks from recent years is the Snowden leak, which would have provided a great way to show how the NSA adapted once strong crypto went irrevocably mainstream. This book is about the battle for privacy a battle that pitted nobodies against the world s most powerful people and governments The nobodies won Governments have always had a substantial stake in restricting access to information, often for very good reasons, but individuals need to protect their personal information also The computer provided the means for incredibly powerful cryptographic tools, and those in power wanted to keep those tools to themselves Whitfield Diffie was a contrarian A genius, he didn t decide to learn to read until he was ten years old because he so enjoyed having his parents read to him Once he decided to learn, he read everything, and he was particularly drawn to books about cryptography, the science of encoding information Interestingly, he was less interested in cryptanalysis and decoding For a while he lost interest, thinking all the interesting work had already been done After working at MIT, he moved on to indulge his passion for mathematics and computer programming and eventually artificial intelligence While his hacker friends were indulging themselves breaking into other computers to see if it could be done, Diffie worked on software to prevent such intrusions Then he read David Kahn s classic The Codebreakers that revealed how much secret work was being done by the NSA formerly known as No Such Agency He realized an enormous amount of work was being done behind closed doors, and that offended his sense of propriety since privacy for individuals was important too Encryption had become essential with the advent of the Internet Digital signatures, for example could be easily copied, as could digital documents, so how could they be made secure without slowing down transactions In 1977, three MIT professors who had been intrigued by Diffie s work discovered the mechanism that would strike terror in the hearts of cryptanalysts those who break codes Using factoring of prime numbers as the focal point, they realized that a 129 digit product of two prime numbers would require millions of years to break by brute strength computer analysis of all the possibilities , but that anyone who had a private key of one of the prime numbers could easily decode the message Thus the key that performed the encryption could be made public indeed, the wider the dissemination the better For a better explanation read the book We re pushing my envelope here The National Security Agency, better known as the NSA, an agency that in its early years did not even admit to its own existence, began a campaign to thwart the work of the mathematicians Even after the Justice Department had ruled that the ITAR regulations these prevented dissemination of even published papers were unconstitutional, the agency was trying to use them to scare anyone working on novel forms of cryptography In other words, in spite of their having sworn allegiance to the Constitution, the agency and its employees were operating in a manner that the legal arm of the government had said was clearly unconstitutional Shades of Oliver North, who always thought he could be the sole interpreter of the Constitution The epitome of the governmental role in trying to thwart the proverbial horse from escaping the barn was the Clipper chip This hardware device was designed to be placed in every device that might conceivably be used for communications, from computers to telephones Initially proposed by the NSA with the concurrence of the FBI and National Institutes of Standards, the device would use an escrow key that is, every time it was used a key would be sent to a government agency theoretically to be stored until such time as the government needed to get at the conversation Unfortunately, the Clinton administration, techno freaks though they professed to be, completely misread the mood of the country After all, would you leave a key to your house at the police station so they could get in any time they wanted The reaction from foreign countries was astonishment They were supposed to give the U.S government access to private business conversations, etc The hubris of it all The crowning blow, despite polls that showed 80% of the country being opposed to the Clipper chip, was when a consultant hired by the NSA to test the chip showed it could be broken It took him 42 minutes after realizing that the checksum used to verify the key being sent to law enforcement was only sixteen bits and could be computationally broken by a home PC That made it the subject of ridicule and it was doomed Levy s book is a real page turner and a classic analysis of how of technology outpaces policy. 549 , 5 5 , ..